The objectives of all business are to makes profits and a
merchandising concern can do that by increasing its sales at remunerative
prices. This is possible, if the product is widely polished to be audience
the final consumers, channel members and industrial users and through
convincing arguments it is persuaded to buy it. Publicity makes a thing or
an idea known to people. It is a general term indicating efforts at mass
appeal. As personal stimulation of demand for a product service or business
unit by planting commercially significant news about it in a published
medium or obtaining favourable presentation of it upon video television or
stage that is not paid for by the sponsor.
other hand, advertising denotes a specific attempt to popularize a specific
product or service at a certain cost. It is a method of publicity. It always
intentional openly sponsored by the sponsor and involves certain cost and
hence is paid for. It is a common form of non- personal communication about
an organisation and or its products idea service etc. that is transmitted to
a target audiences through a mass medium. In common parlance the term
publicity and advertising are used synonymously.
What is Advertising :
word advertising is derived from the Latin word viz, "advertero" "ad" meaning towards and "verto" meeting towards and "verto" meaning. "I turn" literally specific thing".
stated advertising is the art "says green." Advertising is a general term
for and all forms of publicity, from the cry of the street boy selling
newspapers to the most celebrate attention attracts device. The object
always is to bring to public notice some articles or service, to create a
demand to stimulate buying and in general to bring logethel the man with
something to sell and the man who has means or desires to buy".
Advertising has been defined by different experts. Some of the quoted
definition are :
American marketing association has defined advertising as "any paid form of
non personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an
identified sponsor. The medium used are print broad cast and direct.
Stanton deserves that "Advertising consists of all the activities involved
in presenting to a group a non- personal, oral or visual openly, sponsored
message regarding a product, service, or idea. This message called an
advertisement is disseminated through one or more media and is paid for by
the identified sponsor.
Advertising is any paid form of non – personal paid of presentation of ideas
goods or services by an identified sponsor.
Advertising is a "non- personal paid message of commercial significance
about a product, service or company made to a market by an identified
developing an advertising programme, one must always start by identifying
the market needs and buyer motives and must make five major decisions
commonly referred as 5M (mission, money message, media and measurement) of
basis of various definitions it has certain basic features such as :
It is a mass non-personal communication.
It is a matter of record.
It persuades buyers to purchase the goods advertised.
It is a mass paid communication.
The communication media is diverse such as print (newspapers
It is also called printed salesmanship because information is
spread by means of the written and printed work and pictures so that people
may be induced to act upon it.
firms advertising is the dominant element of the promotional mix –
particulars for those manufacturers who produce convenience goods such as
detergent, non – prescription drugs, cosmetics, soft drinks and grocery
products. Advertising is also used extensively by maters of automobiles,
home appliances, etc, to introduce new product and new product features its
uses its attributes, pt availability etc.
Advertising can also help to convince potential buyers that a firms product
or service is superior to competitors product in make in quality, in price
etc. it can create brand image and reduce the likelihood of brand switching
even when competitors lower their prices or offer some attractive
Advertising is particularly effective in certain other spheres too such as :
When consumer awareness of products or service is at a
When sales are increasing for all terms in an industry.
When a product is new and incorporates technological advance
not strong and.
When primary buying motive exists.
It performance the
following functions :
Promotion of sales
Introduction of new product awareness.
Mass production facilitation
Carry out research
Education of people.
speaking, advertising may be classified into two categories viz., product
and institutional advertising.
a) Product Advertising
main purpose of such advertising is to inform and stimulate the market about
the advertisers products of services and to sell these. Thus type of
advertising usually promote specific, trended products in such a manner as
to make the brands seam more desirable. It is used by business government
organization and private non-business organizations to promote the uses
features, images and benefits of their services and products.
Product advertising is sub-divided into direct action and indirect action
advertising, Direct action product advertising wages the buyer to take
action at once, ice he seeks a quick response to the advertisement which may
be to order the product by mail, or mailing a coupon, or he may promptly
purchase in a retail store in response to prince reduction during clearance
Product advertising is sub-divided into direct & indirect action advertising
& product advertising aims at informing persons about what a products is
what it does, how it is used and where it can be purchased. On the other
hand selective advertising is made to meet the selective demand for a
particular brand or type is product.
b) Institutional Advertising :
designed to create a proper attitude towards the sellers to build company
image or goodwill rather than to sell specific product or service. Its
purpose is to create a frame of mind and to implant feeling favourable to
the advertisers company. Its assignment is to make friends for the
institution or organization.
sub-divided into three categories : patronage, public, relations and public
service institutional advertising.
In patronage institutional advertising the manufacturer tells
his prospects and customer about himself his policies and lives personnel.
The appeals to the patronage motivation of buyers. If successful, he
convince buyers that his operation entitles him to the money spent by them.
Public relations institutional advertising is used to create
a favourable image of the firm among employees, stock-holders or the general
Public service institutional advertising wages public
c) Other Types :
other types are as follows :
long term objectives of advertising are broad and general, and concern the
contribution advertising should make to the achievement of overall
company objectives. Most companies regard advertisingly main objective as
hat of proving support to personal selling and other forms of promotion. But
advertising is a highly versatile communications tools and may therefore by
used for achieving various short and long term objectives. Among these
objectives are the following :
To do the entire selling job (as in mail order marketing).
To introduce a new product (by building brand awareness among
To force middlemen to handle the product (pull strategy).
To build brand preference 9by making it more difficult for
middleman to sell substitutes).
To remind users to buy the product (retentive strategy).
To publicize some change in marketing strategy (e.g., a price
change, a new model or an improvement in the product).
To provide rationalization (i.e. Socially acceptable
To combat or neutralize competitors advertising.
To improve the moral of dealers and/or sales people (by
showing that the company is doing its share of promotion).
To acquaint buyers and prospects with the new uses of the
product (to extend the PLC).
functions of advertisement, and that purpose its ethics, may be discussion
It leads to cheaper prices. "No advertiser could live in the
highly competitive arena of modern business if his methods of selling were
more costly than those of his rivals."
It acquaints the public with the features of the goods and
advantages which buyers will enjoy.
It increases demand for commodities and this results in
increased production. Advertising :
Creates and stimulates demand opens and expands the markets;
Creates goodwill which loads to an increase in sales volume;
Reduces marketing costs, particularly product selling costs.
Satisfied consumer demands by placing in the market what he
It reduces distribution expenses in as much as it plays the
part of thousands of salesman at a home. Information on a mass scale
relieves the necessity of expenditure on sales promotion staff, and quicker
and wider distribution leads to diminishing of the distribution costs.
It ensures the consumers better quality of goods. A good name
is the breath of the life to an advertiser.
By paying the way for large scale production and increased
industrialization, advertising contributes its quota to the profit of
the companies the prosperity of the shareholder the uplifts of the wage
earners and the solution of he unemployment problem.
It raises the standard of living of the general public by
impelling it to use to articles of modern types which may add to his
material well being. "Modern advertising has made the luxuries of yesterday
the necessities of today ..................... It is a positive creative
force in business. It makes two blades of grass grow in the business world
where one grew before.
It establishes the goodwill of the concern for the test
articles produced by it and in course of time they sell like not cakes
consumer search for satisfaction of their needs when they purchase goods
what they want from its beauty, superiority, economy, comfort, approval,
popularity, power, safety, convenience, sexual gratification and so on. The
manufactures therefore tries to improve this goodwill and reputation by
knowing the buyer behaviour.
To sum up it may be said that advertising aims at committing
the producers, educating the consumer, supplementing the salesman converting
the producer and the dealer to eliminate the competitor, but above all it is
a link between the produce and the consumer.
WHY & WHEN TO
Advertising as a tool to marketing not only reaches those who buy , but also
those whose opinions or authority is counted for example a manufacturer of
marble tiles and building boards advertises not only to people who intend to
build houses but also to architect and engineers. While the manufacturers of
pharmaceuticals products advertise to doctors as well as to the general
public. At time it is necessary for a manufacturer or a concern to advertise
things which it does not sell but which when sold stimulates the sales of
its own product. There are concerns like electric heaters, iron etc. because
the use of these increases the demand for their products.
Advertising should be used only when it promises to bring good result more
economically and efficiently as compared to other means of selling. There
are goods for which much time and efforts are required in creating a demand
by sending salesman to prospective buyers than by simply advertising them.
In the early days of the cash register in America it was sold by specially
trained salesman who called on the prospective users and had the difficult
task of convincing them that they could no longer carry on with the old
methods, and that they urgently needed a cash register. In our country
certain publishers have found it less costly to sell their books by sending
salesman from house to house among prospective buyers than to advertise
them. In these two examples the cost of creating demand would be too high if
attempted by advertising alone under such circumstances advertising is used
to make the salesman acceptable to the people they call upon to increase the
confidence of the public in the house. Naturals when there are good profits
competitors will be attracted and they should be kicked out as and when
sufficient capital is available by advertising on a large scale. Immediate
result may not justify the increased expenditure but it will no doubt secure
DESIGNING ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN :
advertising is an organized series of advertising messages. It has been
defined as "a planned, co-ordinate series of promotional efforts built
around a central theme and designed to reach a specified goals." In other
words, it is an orderly planned effort consisting of related but self –
contained and independent advertisements. The campaign may appear in one
more media . it has single theme or keynote idea and a single objective or
goal. Thus, "a unified theme of content provides psychological continuity
throughout the campaign while visual and oral similarity provide physical
continuity. In short run, all campaign want pre-determined psychological
reaction in the long run, practically all campaigns have sales goal.
The series of advertisements used in the campaign must be
integrated with the sales promotional efforts and with the activities of the
Campaign vary in length some may run only for a few days,
other for weeks, yet other for a season or the entire year. Usually a range
of 3 to 6 months includes many campaigns. Many factors influences campaign
length such as competitors advertising media, policies, seasonal falls
curves of the product involved, the size of the advertising funds, campaign
objectives and the nature of the advertisers marketing programme.
advertising campaign, especially those connected with the consumers aims at
achieving these objectives :
To announce a new product or improve product.
To hold consumers patronage against intensified campaign use.
To inform consumers about a new product use.
To teach consumers how to use product.
To promote a contest or a premium offer.
To establish a new trade regional, and
To help solve a coca regional problem.
The institutional advertising campaign on the other hand,
have these objectives.
To create a corporate personality or image.
To build a company prestige.
To keep the company name before the public.
To emphasize company services and facilities.
To enable company salesman to see top executive consistently
when making sales calls, and
To increase friendliness and goodwill towards the company.
Developing the campaign programmes. The advertising campaigns
are prepared by the advertising agencies, which work an behalf of their
clients who manufacture product or service enterprises, which have services
to sell. The word campaign is used because advertising agencies approach
their task with a sum Blanca of military fanfare in which one frequently
hears words like target audience logistics, zero in and tactics and strategy
The account executive co-ordinates the work in a campaign.
The creation of an advertising campaign starts with an exploration of
consumers habits and psychology in relation to the product. This requires
the services of statistical trained in survey techniques and of others
trained in social psychology. Statisticians select samples for survey which
are done by trained interviewers who visits individuals, included in the
sample and ask question to find out about their taste and habits.
This enquiry often leads to a change in a familiar product.
For instance bathing soap may come in several new colours or cigarette in a
new packet or talcum powder in another size.
Such interviews are often quite essential to find out the
appeal of advertising message for a product that would be most effective
David Ogilvy describes a consumers survey to find out the
most meaningful benefit in which women are interested when they buy a face
cream. The largest preference as given to "Cleans deep into pores" followed
in order of importance by prevent dryness, "is a complete beauty treatment,
recommended by skin doctors" makes skin look younger' contains estrogenic
hormones, pasteurized for purity, prevent skin form aging, smooth our
wrinkles ogilvy concludes, form this voting come one of Helena Rubinstein's
most successful face creams. We christened it deep cleanser, thus, building
the winning form into name of the product.
After getting the data the account executive puts together
the essential elements of his clients brief, interprets the research
findings and draws up what he calls the "advertising strategy".
STAGE IN ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN
Several steps are required to developed an advertising campaign the number
of stages and exact order in which they are carried out may vary according
to an organisations resources, the nature of its product and the types of
audiences to be reached. The major stages/step are :
Identifying and analyzing the advertising.
Defining advertising objects.
Creating the advertising platform.
Determining the advertising appropriation.
Selection media plan.
Creating the advertising message.
Evaluating the effectiveness of advertising.
Organizing of advertising campaign.
1. Identifying & Analyzing the
Advertising target :
Under this step it is to decided as to whom is the firm trying to reach with
the message. The advertising target is the group of people towards which
advertisements are aimed at four this purpose complete information about the
market target i.e. the location and geographical location of the people, the
distribution of age, income, sex, educational level, and consumers attitudes
regarding purchase and use both of the advertising product and competing
products is needed with better knowledge of market target, effective
advertising campaign can be developed on the other hand, if the advertising
target is not properly identified and analyzed the campaign is does likely
to be effective.
2. Determining the advertising
objectives of advertisement must be specifically and clearly defined in
measurable terms such as "to communicate specific qualities about a
particulars product to gain a certain degree of penetration in a definite
audience of a given size during a given period of time", increase sales by a
certain percentage or increase the firms market shares."
goals of advertising may be to :
Create a favourable company image by acquainting the public
with the services offered available to the employees and its achievements.
Create consumers or distributor awareness by encouraging
requests providing information about the types of products sold; providing
information about the benefits to be gained from use of the company's
products or services; and indicating how product (or services) can be used;
Encourage immediate sales by encouraging potential purchasers
through special sales contests, getting recommendation of professional
people about company's products etc.
It secures action by the reader through associating ideas,
repetition of the same name in different contexts, immediate action appeal.
3. Creating the Advertising
advertising platform consists of the basic issues or selling points that an
advertiser wishes to include in the advertising campaign. A single
advertisement in an advertising campaign may contain one or more issues in
the platform. A motorcycle producers advertising platform should contain
issues which are of importance to consumers filling and such issues also be
those which the competitive product do not posses.
Determining the Advertising Appropriation:
The advertising appropriation is the total amount of money
which marketer allocates. For advertising for a specific time period.
Determining the campaign budget involves estimating now much it will cost to
achieve the campaigns objectives. If the campaign objectives are profit
relating and stated quantitatively, then the amount of the campaign budget
is determined by estimating the proposed campaigns effectiveness in
attaining them. If campaigns object is to build a particular type of company
image, then there is little basis for predicting either the campaigns
effectiveness or determining the budget required.
5. Selecting the Media :
selection is an important since it costs time space and money various
factors influence this selection, the most fundamental being the nature of
the target market segment, the type of the product and the cost involved.
The distinctive characteristics of various media are also important.
Therefore management should focus its attention on media compatibility with
Press Advertising or Print
City, Small town, Sundays, Daily, weekly, Fortnightly, quarterlies,
financial and annuals, English, vernacular or regional languages.
General or special, illustrated or otherwise, English, Hindi, Regional
Trade & Technical Journals, Industrial year books, commercial,
directories, telephone, Directories, references books & annuals.
Circulated all over the country and among the industrialist and business
Circulars, catalogues, leaflets, brochures, booklets, folders,
colanders, blotters, diaries & other printed material.
Outdoor or Traffic
Poster and bills on walls, railways stations platforms outside public
buildings trains, buses.
Broadcast or radio and T.V.
Spot, Sectional or national trade cost
Movie Slides and films non theatrical and documentary films metal plates
and signs attaches to trees.
House to house
Sampling , couponing, free gifts, novelties, demonst-rations.
Counter and widows display demonstration given by retailer or the
is a big spot for advertising.
So these are the media of the advertising campaign of the
selecting of the media.
6. Creating the Advertising
is an important stage of advertising campaign. The contents of the message
has to be very carefully drafted in the advertisement. Characteristics of
person in the advertising target influence the message content and form. An
advertisers must use words, symbols and illustration that are meaningful,
familiar and attractive to those persons. The type of media also influence
the content and form of the message.
7. Evaluating the Effectiveness
of Advertising :
effectiveness of advertising is measured for a variety of reasons :
To determine whether a campaign accomplished its
To evaluate the relative effectiveness of several
advertisements to ascertain which copy, illustrations or layout is
To determine the strengths and weaknesses of various media
and media plans.
In other words, measuring advertising effectiveness is needed
to determine whether proposed advertisement should be used and if they will
be now they might be improved; and whether going campaign should be stopped,
continued or changed. In accomplishing these purposes, pretests and post
test are conducted. The former tests before exposing target consumers to
advertisements and the letter after consumers have been exposed to
advertisements and the letter after consumers have been exposed to
For an effective advertising programme, the advertising
manager requires a basic understanding of the medium that is going to carry
For effectively using advertising the management must test
advertising to know which of the advertisement to know which of the
advertisement have proved profitable and why as compared to others.
Find Next Chapter of Project Report on Advertisement Effectiveness
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